Data_Sheet_1_Compositional Data Analysis of Periodontal Disease Microbial Communities.ZIP
Periodontal disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive polymicrobial disease that induces a strong host immune response. Culture-independent methods, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) of bacteria 16S amplicon and shotgun metagenomic libraries, have greatly expanded our understanding of PD biodiversity, identified novel PD microbial associations, and shown that PD biodiversity increases with pocket depth. NGS studies have also found PD communities to be highly host-specific in terms of both biodiversity and the response of microbial communities to periodontal treatment. As with most microbiome work, the majority of PD microbiome studies use standard data normalization procedures that do not account for the compositional nature of NGS microbiome data. Here, we apply recently developed compositional data analysis (CoDA) approaches and software tools to reanalyze multiomics (16S, metagenomics, and metabolomics) data generated from previously published periodontal disease studies. CoDA methods, such as centered log-ratio (clr) transformation, compensate for the compositional nature of these data, which can not only remove spurious correlations but also allows for the identification of novel associations between microbial features and disease conditions. We validated many of the studies’ original findings, but also identified new features associated with periodontal disease, including the genera Schwartzia and Aerococcus and the cytokine C-reactive protein (CRP). Furthermore, our network analysis revealed a lower connectivity among taxa in deeper periodontal pockets, potentially indicative of a more “random” microbiome. Our findings illustrate the utility of CoDA techniques in multiomics compositional data analysis of the oral microbiome.