Data_Sheet_1_Chemical Transfers Occurring Through Oenococcus oeni Biofilm in Different Enological Conditions.docx
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Chardonnay wine malolactic fermentations were carried out to evaluate the chemical transfers occurring at the wood/wine interface in the presence of two different bacterial lifestyles. To do this, Oenococcus oeni was inoculated into must and wine in its planktonic and biofilm lifestyles, whether adhering or not to oak chips, leading to three distinct enological conditions: (i) post-alcoholic fermentation inoculation in wine in the absence of oak chips, (ii) post-alcoholic fermentation inoculation in wine in the presence of oak chips, and (iii) co-inoculation of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and O. oeni directly in Chardonnay musts in the presence of oak chips. Classical microbiological and physico-chemical parameters analyzed during the fermentation processes confirmed that alcoholic fermentation was completed identically regardless of the enological conditions, and that once O. oeni had acquired a biofilm lifestyle in the presence or absence of oak, malolactic fermentation occurred faster and with better reproducibility compared to planktonic lifestyles. Analyses of volatile components (higher alcohols and wood aromas) and non-volatile components (Chardonnay grape polyphenols) carried out in the resulting wines revealed chemical differences, particularly when bacterial biofilms were present at the wood interface. This study revealed the non-specific trapping activity of biofilm networks in the presence of wood and grape compounds regardless of the enological conditions. Changes of concentrations in higher alcohols reflected the fermentation bioactivity of bacterial biofilms on wood surfaces. These chemical transfers were statistically validated by an untargeted approach using Excitation Emission Matrices of Fluorescence combined with multivariate analysis to discriminate innovative enological practices during winemaking and to provide winemakers with an optical tool for validating the biological and chemical differentiations occurring in wine that result from their decisions.
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