Data_Sheet_1_CCR2 Inhibition Reduces Neurotoxic Microglia Activation Phenotype After Japanese Encephalitis Viral Infection.PDF
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Controlling the proinflammatory response of microglia by targeting chemokines (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) could be an important therapeutic approach for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection. Here, through JEV infection to BV2 microglia and young BALB/c mice, we investigated that CCR2 is highly upregulated after JEV infection and plays a key role in determining microglia activation phenotype and associated with neurotoxic proinflammatory mediators of TNF-α and IFNγ. In addition, we found JEV infection to BV2 microglia causes an increase in microglial proliferation and cell body area at day 1 and day 3. Using the agonist molecule of CCR2 inhibition; RS102895, significantly reduces microglia reactive phenotype and nitric oxide production. Further, to define the role of CCR2 in functional responses of microglia and their activation phenotype, we performed in vitro cell scratch functional assay and ImageJ analysis. When compared with control, microglia cells showed a significant increase in elongated or rod-like activated phenotype in JEV-infected cells at 24 h post-infection and CCR2 inhibition significantly reduced the elongated activation phenotype induced by JEV infection, suggesting that CCR2 acts as a critical regulator for microglia activation phenotype after JEV infection. We found that JEV-infected mice treated with RS102895 had less microglia activation and reduced mRNA expression of CCR2 and proinflammatory mediators such as IFN-γ in cortical tissue. Collectively, our data indicate that CCR2 drives reactive phenotype of microglia and its inhibition reduces microglia activation and neurotoxic proinflammatory mediators after JEV infection.
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