Data_Sheet_1_Alterations of gut microbiota are associated with brain structural changes in the spectrum of Alzheimer's disease: the SILCODE study in Hainan cohort.docx
The correlation between gut microbiota and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasingly being recognized by clinicians. However, knowledge about the gut–brain–cognition interaction remains largely unknown.Methods
One hundred and twenty-seven participants, including 35 normal controls (NCs), 62 with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), and 30 with cognitive impairment (CI), were included in this study. The participants underwent neuropsychological assessments and fecal microbiota analysis through 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Illumina Miseq sequencing technique. Structural MRI data were analyzed for cortical anatomical features, including thickness, sulcus depth, fractal dimension, and Toro's gyrification index using the SBM method. The association of altered gut microbiota among the three groups with structural MRI metrics and cognitive function was evaluated. Furthermore, co-expression network analysis was conducted to investigate the gut–brain–cognition interactions.Results
The abundance of Lachnospiraceae, Lachnospiracea_incertae_sedis, Fusicatenibacter, and Anaerobutyricum decreased with cognitive ability. Rikenellaceae, Odoribacteraceae, and Alistipes were specifically enriched in the CI group. Mediterraneibacter abundance was correlated with changes in brain gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume (p = 0.0214, p = 0.0162) and significantly with changes in cortical structures in brain regions, such as the internal olfactory area and the parahippocampal gyrus. The three colonies enriched in the CI group were positively correlated with cognitive function and significantly associated with changes in cortical structure related to cognitive function, such as the precuneus and syrinx gyrus.Conclusion
This study provided evidence that there was an inner relationship among the altered gut microbiota, brain atrophy, and cognitive decline. Targeting the gut microbiota may be a novel therapeutic strategy for early AD.