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Data_Sheet_1_A comprehensive phytochemical, biological, and toxicological studies of roots and aerial parts of Crotalaria burhia Buch.-Ham: An important medicinal plant.docx
This study was designed to seek the phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, enzyme inhibition, and toxicity potentials of methanol and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of aerial and root parts of Crotalaria burhia. Total bioactive content, high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) polyphenolic quantification, and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) analysis were utilized to evaluate the phytochemical composition. Antioxidant [including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH)], 2,2′-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity CUPRAC, phosphomolybdenum, and metal chelation assays] and enzyme inhibition [against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and tyrosinase] assays were carried out for biological evaluation. The cytotoxicity was tested against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cell lines. The root-methanol extract contained the highest levels of phenolics (37.69 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and flavonoids (83.0 mg quercetin equivalent/g extract) contents, and was also the most active for DPPH (50.04 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract) and CUPRAC (139.96 mg Trolox equivalent /g extract) antioxidant assays. Likewise, the aerial-methanol extract exhibited maximum activity for ABTS (94.05 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract) and FRAP (64.23 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract) assays. The aerial-DCM extract was noted to be a convincing cholinesterase (AChE; 4.01 and BChE; 4.28 mg galantamine equivalent/g extract), and α-glucosidase inhibitor (1.92 mmol acarbose equivalent/g extract). All of the extracts exhibited weak to modest toxicity against the tested cell lines. A considerable quantities of gallic acid, catechin, 4-OH benzoic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, 3-OH-4-MeO benzaldehyde, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, naringenin, and carvacrol were quantified via HPLC-PDA analysis. UHPLC-MS analysis of methanolic extracts from roots and aerial parts revealed the tentative identification of important phytoconstituents such as polyphenols, saponins, flavonoids, and glycoside derivatives. To conclude, this plant could be considered a promising source of origin for bioactive compounds with several therapeutic uses.