Data_Sheet_1_A Transfer Learning Algorithm to Reduce Brain-Computer Interface Calibration Time for Long-Term Users.pdf
Current motor imagery-based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems require a long calibration time at the beginning of each session before they can be used with adequate levels of classification accuracy. In particular, this issue can be a significant burden for long term BCI users. This article proposes a novel transfer learning algorithm, called r-KLwDSA, to reduce the BCI calibration time for long-term users. The proposed r-KLwDSA algorithm aligns the user's EEG data collected in previous sessions to the few EEG trials collected in the current session, using a novel linear alignment method. Thereafter, the aligned EEG trials from the previous sessions and the few EEG trials from the current sessions are fused through a weighting mechanism before they are used for calibrating the BCI model. To validate the proposed algorithm, a large dataset containing the EEG data from 11 stroke patients, each performing 18 BCI sessions, was used. The proposed framework demonstrated a significant improvement in the classification accuracy, of over 4% compared to the session-specific algorithm, when there were as few as two trials per class available from the current session. The proposed algorithm was particularly successful in improving the BCI accuracy of the sessions that had initial session-specific accuracy below 60%, with an average improvement of around 10% in the accuracy, leading to more stroke patients having meaningful BCI rehabilitation.