Data_Sheet_1_A Simple-to-Use Nomogram for Predicting the Survival of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients.docx
Objective: This study aimed to develop and validate a simple-to-use nomogram for early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients undergoing a preoperative consultation and doctors conducting a postoperative evaluation.
Methods: A total of 2,225 HCC patients confirmed with stage I or II were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database between January 2010 and December 2015. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: a training group (n = 1,557) and a validation group (n = 668). Univariate and multivariate hazards regression analyses were used to identify independent prognostic factors. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to select variables for the nomogram. The performance of the nomogram was validated concerning its ability of discrimination and calibration and its clinical utility.
Results: Age, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), race, the degree of differentiation, and therapy method were significantly associated with the prognosis of early HCC patients. Based on the AIC results, five variables (age, race, AFP, degree of differentiation, and therapy method) were incorporated into the nomogram. The concordance indexes of the simple nomogram in the training and validation groups were 0.707 (95% CI: 0.683–0.731) and 0.733 (95% CI: 0.699–0.767), respectively. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the nomogram in the training and validation groups were 0.744 and 0.764, respectively, for predicting 3-year survival, and 0.786 and 0.794, respectively, for predicting 5-year survival. Calibration plots showed good consistency between the predictions of the nomogram and the actual observations in both the training and validation groups. Decision curve analysis (DCA) showed that the simple nomogram was clinically useful, and the overall survival significantly differed between low- and high-risk groups divided by the median score of the nomogram in the training group (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: A simple-to-use nomogram based on a large population-based study is developed and validated, which is a conventional tool for doctors to facilitate the individual consultation of preoperative patients and the postoperative personalized evaluation.