Data_Sheet_1_A Machine Learning Approach for the Prediction of Traumatic Brain Injury Induced Coagulopathy.docx
Background: Traumatic brain injury-induced coagulopathy (TBI-IC), is a disease with poor prognosis and increased mortality rate.
Objectives: Our study aimed to identify predictors as well as develop machine learning (ML) models to predict the risk of coagulopathy in this population.
Methods: ML models were developed and validated based on two public databases named Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC)-IV and the eICU Collaborative Research Database (eICU-CRD). Candidate predictors, including demographics, family history, comorbidities, vital signs, laboratory findings, injury type, therapy strategy and scoring system were included. Models were compared on area under the curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and decision curve analysis (DCA) curve.
Results: Of 999 patients in MIMIC-IV included in the final cohort, a total of 493 (49.35%) patients developed coagulopathy following TBI. Recursive feature elimination (RFE) selected 15 variables, including international normalized ratio (INR), prothrombin time (PT), sepsis related organ failure assessment (SOFA), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), platelet (PLT), hematocrit (HCT), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), red blood cell volume distribution width (RDW), creatinine (CRE), congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, sodium, and blood transfusion. The external validation in eICU-CRD demonstrated that adapting boosting (Ada) model had the highest AUC of 0.924 (95% CI: 0.902–0.943). Furthermore, in the DCA curve, the Ada model and the extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB) model had relatively higher net benefits (ie, the correct classification of coagulopathy considering a trade-off between false- negatives and false-positives)—over other models across a range of threshold probability values.
Conclusions: The ML models, as indicated by our study, can be used to predict the incidence of TBI-IC in the intensive care unit (ICU).
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