Data_Sheet_13_Global Neuropeptide Annotations From the Genomes and Transcriptomes of Cubozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa), and Octocora.PDF (161.91 kB)
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Data_Sheet_13_Global Neuropeptide Annotations From the Genomes and Transcriptomes of Cubozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa), and Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa).PDF

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posted on 06.12.2019, 11:12 by Thomas L. Koch, Cornelis J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen

During animal evolution, ancestral Cnidaria and Bilateria diverged more than 600 million years ago. The nervous systems of extant cnidarians are strongly peptidergic. Neuropeptides have been isolated and sequenced from a few model cnidarians, but a global investigation of the presence of neuropeptides in all cnidarian classes has been lacking. Here, we have used a recently developed software program to annotate neuropeptides in the publicly available genomes and transcriptomes from members of the classes Cubozoa, Scyphozoa, and Staurozoa (which all belong to the subphylum Medusozoa) and contrasted these results with neuropeptides present in the subclass Octocorallia (belonging to the class Anthozoa). We found three to six neuropeptide preprohormone genes in members of the above-mentioned cnidarian classes or subclasses, each coding for several (up to thirty-two) similar or identical neuropeptide copies. Two of these neuropeptide preprohormone genes are present in all cnidarian classes/subclasses investigated, so they are good candidates for being among the first neuropeptide genes evolved in cnidarians. One of these primordial neuropeptide genes codes for neuropeptides having the C-terminal sequence GRFamide (pQGRFamide in Octocorallia; pQWLRGRFamide in Cubozoa and Scyphozoa; pQFLRGRFamide in Staurozoa). The other primordial neuropeptide gene codes for peptides having RPRSamide or closely resembling amino acid sequences. In addition to these two primordial neuropeptide sequences, cnidarians have their own class- or subclass-specific neuropeptides, which probably evolved to serve class/subclass-specific needs. When we carried out phylogenetic tree analyses of the GRFamide or RPRSamide preprohormones from cubozoans, scyphozoans, staurozoans, and octocorallia, we found that their phylogenetic relationships perfectly agreed with current models of the phylogeny of the studied cnidarian classes and subclasses. These results support the early origins of the GRFamide and RPRSamide preprohormone genes.

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