DataSheet_5_Meta-Analysis of HTLV-1-Infected Patients Identifies CD40LG and GBP2 as Markers of ATLL and HAM/TSP Clinical Status: Two Genes Beat as One.csv

Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) was the first recognized human retrovirus. Infection can lead to two main symptomatologies: adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATLL) and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Each manifestation is associated with distinct characteristics, as ATLL presents as a leukemia-like disease, while HAM/TSP presents as severe inflammation in the central nervous system, leading to paraparesis. Previous studies have identified molecules associated with disease development, e.g., the downregulation of Foxp3 in Treg cells was associated with increased risk of HAM/TSP. In addition, elevated levels of CXCL10, CXCL9, and Neopterin in cerebrospinal fluid also present increased risk. However, these molecules were only associated with specific patient groups or viral strains. Furthermore, the majority of studies did not jointly compare all clinical manifestations, and robust analysis entails the inclusion of both ATLL and HAM/TSP. The low numbers of samples also pose difficulties in conducting gene expression analysis to identify specific molecular relationships. To address these limitations and increase the power of manifestation-specific gene associations, meta-analysis was performed using publicly available gene expression data. The application of supervised learning techniques identified alterations in two genes observed to act in tandem as potential biomarkers: GBP2 was associated with HAM/TSP, and CD40LG with ATLL. Together, both molecules demonstrated high sample-classification accuracy (AUC values: 0.88 and 1.0, respectively). Next, other genes with expression correlated to these genes were identified, and we attempted to relate the enriched pathways identified with the characteristic of each clinical manifestation. The present findings contribute to knowledge surrounding viral progression and suggest a potentially powerful new tool for the molecular classification of HTLV-associated diseases.