DataSheet_4_Thymoproteasome-Expressing Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Confer Protective Anti-Tumor Immunity via Cross-Priming of Endogenous Dendritic Cells.pdf (271.26 kB)
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DataSheet_4_Thymoproteasome-Expressing Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Confer Protective Anti-Tumor Immunity via Cross-Priming of Endogenous Dendritic Cells.pdf

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posted on 19.01.2021, 19:54 authored by Jean-Pierre Bikorimana, Nehme El-Hachem, Abed El-Hakim El-Kadiry, Jamilah Abusarah, Natasha Salame, Riam Shammaa, Moutih Rafei

Proteasomes are complex macromolecular structures existing in various forms to regulate a myriad of cellular processes. Besides degrading unwanted or misfolded proteins (proteostasis), distinct immune functions were ascribed for the immunoproteasome and thymoproteasome (TPr) complexes. For instance, antigen degradation during ongoing immune responses mainly relies on immunoproteasome activity, whereas intrathymic CD8 T-cell development requires peptide generation by the TPr complex. Despite these substantial differences, the functional contribution of the TPr to peripheral T-cell immunity remains ill-defined. We herein explored whether the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) engineered to exhibit altered proteasomal activity through de novo expression of the TPr complex can be exploited as a novel anti-cancer vaccine capable of triggering potent CD8 T-cell activation. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of MSC-TPr revealed a substantial decrease in MHCI (H2-Kb and H2-Dd) expression along with elevated secretion of various chemokines (CCL2, CCL9, CXCL1, LIX, and CX3CL1). In parallel, transcriptomic analysis pinpointed the limited ability of MSC-TPr to present endogenous antigens, which is consistent with their low expression levels of the peptide-loading proteins TAP, CALR, and PDAI3. Nevertheless, MSC-TPr cross-presented peptides derived from captured soluble proteins. When tested for their protective capacity, MSC-TPr triggered modest anti-tumoral responses despite efficient generation of effector memory CD4 and CD8 T cells. In contrast, clodronate administration prior to vaccination dramatically enhanced the MSC-TPr-induced anti-tumoral immunity clearly highlighting a refractory role mediated by phagocytic cells. Thus, our data elute to a DC cross-priming-dependant pathway in mediating the therapeutic effect of MSC-TPr.

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