DataSheet_2_Continuous Modeling of T CD4 Lymphocyte Activation and Function.pdf (78.9 kB)
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DataSheet_2_Continuous Modeling of T CD4 Lymphocyte Activation and Function.pdf

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posted on 05.11.2021, 04:10 authored by David Martínez-Méndez, Luis Mendoza, Carlos Villarreal, Leonor Huerta

T CD4+ cells are central to the adaptive immune response against pathogens. Their activation is induced by the engagement of the T-cell receptor by antigens, and of co-stimulatory receptors by molecules also expressed on antigen presenting cells. Then, a complex network of intracellular events reinforce, diversify and regulate the initial signals, including dynamic metabolic processes that strongly influence both the activation state and the differentiation to effector cell phenotypes. The regulation of cell metabolism is controlled by the nutrient sensor adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which drives the balance between oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis. Herein, we put forward a 51-node continuous mathematical model that describes the temporal evolution of the early events of activation, integrating a circuit of metabolic regulation into the main routes of signaling. The model simulates the induction of anergy due to defective co-stimulation, the CTLA-4 checkpoint blockade, and the differentiation to effector phenotypes induced by external cytokines. It also describes the adjustment of the OXPHOS-glycolysis equilibrium by the action of AMPK as the effector function of the T cell develops. The development of a transient phase of increased OXPHOS before induction of a sustained glycolytic phase during differentiation to the Th1, Th2 and Th17 phenotypes is shown. In contrast, during Treg differentiation, glycolysis is subsequently reduced as cell metabolism is predominantly polarized towards OXPHOS. These observations are in agreement with experimental data suggesting that OXPHOS produces an ATP reservoir before glycolysis boosts the production of metabolites needed for protein synthesis, cell function, and growth.