DataSheet_1_Whole Genome Scan and Selection Signatures for Climate Adaption in Yanbian Cattle.docx (639.34 kB)

DataSheet_1_Whole Genome Scan and Selection Signatures for Climate Adaption in Yanbian Cattle.docx

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posted on 28.02.2020, 14:09 by Jiafei Shen, Quratulain Hanif, Yang Cao, Yongsheng Yu, Chuzhao Lei, Guoliang Zhang, Yumin Zhao

Yanbian cattle is inhabitant of North of China, exhibiting many phenotypic features, such as long, dense body hair, and abundant intramuscular fat, designed to combat the extreme cold climate adaption. In the current study, we studied the cold tolerance of nine Yanbian cattle by whole genome resequencing and compared with African tropical cattle, N’Dama, as a control group. Yanbian cattle was aligned to the Bos taurus reference genome (ARS-UCD1.2) yielding an average of 10.8 fold coverage. The positive selective sweep analysis for the cold adaption in Yanbian cattle were analyzed using composite likelihood ratio (CLR) and nucleotide diversity (θπ), resulting in 292 overlapped genes. The strongest selective signal was found on BTA16 with potential mutation in CORT gene, a regulatory gene of primary hormone in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is reported to be associated with the cold stress, representedfour missense mutations (c.269C > T, p.Lys90Ile; c.251A > G, p.Glu84Gly; c.112C > T, p.Pro38Ser; c.86G > A, p.Pro29His). Meanwhile another gene on BTA6, showed significantly higher selective sweep signals for a cold adapted trait for hair follicle and length development, FGF5 (fibroblast growth factor 5) with a missense mutation (c.191C > T, p.Ser64Phe). Moreover, cold adapted Yanbian cattle was statistically compared with the hot adapted N’Dama cattle, a taurine cattle reported to show superior heat tolerance than zebu cattle, making them better adapted to the hot regions of Africa. XP-CLR, Fst, and θπ ratio were used to compare both breeds, yielding 487, 924, and 346 genes respectively. Among the 12 overlapped genes, (CD36) (c.638A > G, p.Lys 213Arg) involved in fat digestion and absorption plays an important role in membrane transport of long-chain fatty acid and its expression could increase in cold exposure. Henceforth, our study provides a novel genetic insights into the cold climate adaptation of Yanbian cattle and identified three candidate genes (CORT, FGF5, and CD36), which can add to an understanding of the cold climate adaptation of Yanbian cattle.