DataSheet_1_Venetoclax or Ruxolitinib in Pre-Transplant Conditioning Lowers the Engraftment Barrier by Different Mechanisms in Allogeneic Stem Cell Tr.pdf (100.58 kB)
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DataSheet_1_Venetoclax or Ruxolitinib in Pre-Transplant Conditioning Lowers the Engraftment Barrier by Different Mechanisms in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.pdf

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posted on 24.09.2021, 04:37 by Joanne E. Davis, Kelei Du, Mandy J. Ludford-Menting, Ashvind Prabahran, Eric Wong, Nicholas D. Huntington, Rachel M. Koldej, David S. Ritchie

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is utilised to cure haematological malignancies through a combination of conditioning regimen intensity and immunological disease control via the graft versus tumour (GVT) effect. Currently, conventional myeloablative chemotherapeutic or chemoradiation conditioning regimens are associated with significant side effects including graft versus host disease (GVHD), infection, and organ toxicity. Conversely, more tolerable reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens are associated with unacceptably higher rates of disease relapse, partly through an excess incidence of mixed chimerism. Improvement in post-alloSCT outcomes therefore depends on promotion of the GVT effect whilst simultaneously reducing conditioning-related toxicity. We have previously shown that this could be achieved through BCL-2 inhibition, and in this study, we explored the modulation of JAK1/2 as a strategy to lower the barrier to donor engraftment in the setting of RIC. We investigated the impact of short-term treatment of BCL2 (venetoclax) or JAK1/2 (ruxolitinib) inhibition on recipient natural killer and T cell immunity and the subsequent effect on donor engraftment. We identified striking differences in mechanism of action of these two drugs on immune cell subsets in the bone marrow of recipients, and in the regulation of MHC class-II and interferon-inducible gene expression, leading to different rates of GVHD. This study demonstrates that the repurposed use of ruxolitinib or venetoclax can be utilised as pre-transplant immune-modulators to promote the efficacy of alloSCT, whilst reducing its toxicity.

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