DataSheet_1_Sex-Specific Differences in the Association of Metabolically Healthy Obesity With Hyperuricemia and a Network Perspective in Analyzing Factors Related to Hyperuricemia.docx
Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for hyperuricemia, it remains unclear whether obese subjects with metabolically healthy status have a decreased the risk of hyperuricemia and whether sex modifies the association of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) with hyperuricemia risk. We aimed to investigate the sex-specific association between MHO and other obesity phenotypes and hyperuricemia, and to use Bayesian networks to determine and visualize the interactions among hyperuricemia and its related factors.Methods
This study was conducted using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2009. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid ≥ 420 μmol/L in men and ≥ 360 μmol/L in women according to the guidelines. Body mass index (BMI) was used to define normal weight, overweight, and obese status in subjects, and metabolic health state was defined by the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP)-III and Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) criteria, respectively. Subjects were categorized into six phenotypes according to their metabolic health and BMI level status.Results
Of the 7,364 Chinese adult individuals included, the prevalence of hyperuricemia among MHO women was only 8.5% (95% CI 4.8 to 14.3%), but increased to 30.7% among MUO women, whereas the highest prevalence among men was found in the MUOW phenotype (39.4%, 95% CI 35.4 to 43.6%), compared to 15.4% for male subjects with MHO. After adjusting for confounders, the MHO phenotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of hyperuricemia compared with their MHNW counterparts in women (OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.02–3.74) whereas a significant association was not found in men (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.8–2.68). A complex network structure was established by BNs and then used to find connections between hyperuricemia and its related factors, as well as their interrelationships. By using BN reasoning, the probability of having hyperuricemia was 0.076 among MHO men, while it reached 0.124 in MHO women.Conclusions
In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the MHO phenotype was significantly associated with the risk of hyperuricemia only in women, not in men. This sex-specific differences in the association may suggest a favorable condition of MHO for Chinese men with respect to hyperuricemia risk, meanwhile more attention should be paid to the increased risk of hyperuricemia among MHO women.