DataSheet_1_Predicting the Initial Treatment Response to Transarterial Chemoembolization in Intermediate-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma by the Integration of Radiomics and Deep Learning.docx
We aimed to develop radiology-based models for the preoperative prediction of the initial treatment response to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) since the integration of radiomics and deep learning (DL) has not been reported for TACE.Methods
Three hundred and ten intermediate-stage HCC patients who underwent TACE were recruited from three independent medical centers. Based on computed tomography (CT) images, recursive feature elimination (RFE) was used to select the most useful radiomics features. Five radiomics conventional machine learning (cML) models and a DL model were used for training and validation. Mutual correlations between each model were analyzed. The accuracies of integrating clinical variables, cML, and DL models were then evaluated.Results
Good predictive accuracies were showed across the two cohorts in the five cML models, especially the random forest algorithm (AUC = 0.967 and 0.964, respectively). DL showed high accuracies in the training and validation cohorts (AUC = 0.981 and 0.972, respectively). Significant mutual correlations were revealed between tumor size and the five cML models and DL model (each P < 0.001). The highest accuracies were achieved by integrating DL and the random forest algorithm in the training and validation cohorts (AUC = 0.995 and 0.994, respectively).Conclusion
The radiomics cML models and DL model showed notable accuracy for predicting the initial response to TACE treatment. Moreover, the integrated model could serve as a novel and accurate method for prediction in intermediate-stage HCC.