DataSheet_1_Pharmacodynamic and Metabolomics Studies on the Effect of Kouyanqing Granule in the Treatment of Phenol-Induced Oral Ulcer Worsened by Sleep Deprivation.docx

Oral ulcers are the most prevalent oral mucosal diseases globally, and no specific treatment schemes are currently available due to the complexity of oral ulcer diseases. Sleep deprivation increases the risk of a deterioration in oral health. Kouyanqing Granule (KYQG) has been used for decades in China to treat inflammatory diseases of the mouth and throat associated with the hyperactivity of fire due to yin deficiency syndrome. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of KYQG in the treatment of oral ulcers are still unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate whether KYQG treatment could attenuate the symptoms of oral ulcers worsened by sleep deprivation and identify the involved metabolic pathways. First, we conducted chemical profiling of KYQG via UPLC–MS analysis. We then combined pharmacological and metabolomics approaches in a phenol-induced rat model of oral ulcers worsened by sleep deprivation. A total of 79 compounds were initially identified. Our observations showed that KYQG treatment induced a significantly higher healing rate in oral ulcers worsened by sleep deprivation. KYQG significantly reduced the levels of 5-HT and GABA in serum, and only decreased the 5-HT level in brain tissue after phenol injury followed by sleep deprivation. Moreover, KYQG administration significantly suppressed systemic inflammation by inhibiting TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and MCP-1. Immunohistochemical analysis further revealed that KYQG inhibited IL-6 expression in buccal mucosa tissues. KYQG treatment also significantly decreased the serum levels of ACTH, CORT, IgM, and 8-OHdG. Serum metabolomics analysis showed that a total of 30 metabolites showed significant differential abundances under KYQG intervention, while metabolic pathway analysis suggested that the altered metabolites were associated with the dysregulation of eight metabolic pathways. Taken together, our results indicated that KYQG attenuates the symptoms of oral ulcers worsened by sleep deprivation probably through the regulation of the neuroimmunoendocrine system, oxidative stress levels, and tryptophan metabolism. This study also provides a novel approach for addressing the increased health risks resulting from sleep deficiency using an herbal medicine formula.