DataSheet_1_Eye Drops of Metformin Prevents Fibrosis After Glaucoma Filtration Surgery in Rats via Activating AMPK/Nrf2 Signaling Pathway.docx
Metformin has effective therapeutic effects in anti-tumor and anti-fibrotic diseases. However, how the antifibrotic effect of metformin in the eye and how it is transferred are still unclear. Here, the eye drop of metformin treatment was studied in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats of glaucoma filtrating surgery (GFS). Rats were administered randomly bilateral drops: control group (without surgery), GFS group, metformin group or mitomycin C (MMC) group (sponge application intraoperatively, 0.02%). Bleb features and intraocular pressure (IOP) were assessed for postoperative week 4. Metformin effectively inhibited fibrosis and improved the surgical outcomes of GFS. In vitro, we found that the degree of oxidative stress and fibrosis in metformin pretreated-Human Conjunctival Fibroblasts (HConFs) were reduced; the pro-fibrotic response of HConFs were decreased by inducing macrophagic polarity changes. Besides, the inhibition of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the competition of organic cation transporters (OCTs) effectively reduced the anti-fibrotic capability of metformin. Together, this experiment indicates that metformin enters into HConFs cell with OCTs, which can protect against filtrating blebs scar formation in SD rats of GFS via activating AMPK/Nrf2 axis and the downregulation of profibrogenic and inflammatory biomarkers.