DataSheet_1_An integrated solution of deep reinforcement learning for automatic IMRT treatment planning in non-small-cell lung cancer.xlsx
To develop and evaluate an integrated solution for automatic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases.Methods
A novel algorithm named as multi-objectives adjustment policy network (MOAPN) was proposed and trained to learn how to adjust multiple optimization objectives in commercial Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS), based on the multi-agent deep reinforcement learning (DRL) scheme. Furthermore, a three-dimensional (3D) dose prediction module was developed to generate the patient-specific initial optimization objectives to reduce the overall exploration space during MOAPN training. 114 previously treated NSCLC cases suitable for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) were selected from the clinical database. 87 cases were used for the model training, and the remaining 27 cases for evaluating the feasibility and effectiveness of MOAPN in automatic treatment planning.Results
For all tested cases, the average number of adjustment steps was 21 ± 5.9 (mean ± 1 standard deviation). Compared with the MOAPN initial plans, the actual dose of chest wall, spinal cord, heart, lung (affected side), esophagus and bronchus in the MOAPN final plans reduced by 14.5%, 11.6%, 4.7%, 16.7%, 1.6% and 7.7%, respectively. The dose result of OARs in the MOAPN final plans was similar to those in the clinical plans. The complete automatic treatment plan for a new case was generated based on the integrated solution, with about 5-6 min.Conclusion
We successfully developed an integrated solution for automatic treatment planning. Using the 3D dose prediction module to obtain the patient-specific optimization objectives, MOAPN formed action-value policy can simultaneously adjust multiple objectives to obtain a high-quality plan in a shorter time. This integrated solution contributes to improving the efficiency of the overall planning workflow and reducing the variation of plan quality in different regions and treatment centers. Although improvement is warranted, this proof-of-concept study has demonstrated the feasibility of this integrated solution in automatic treatment planning based on the Eclipse TPS.