DataSheet_1_A Novel Mechanism of Carvedilol Efficacy for Rosacea Treatment: Toll-Like Receptor 2 Inhibition in Macrophages.docx (774.8 kB)
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DataSheet_1_A Novel Mechanism of Carvedilol Efficacy for Rosacea Treatment: Toll-Like Receptor 2 Inhibition in Macrophages.docx

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posted on 12.07.2021, 05:23 by Jiawen Zhang, Peiyu Jiang, Lei Sheng, Yunyi Liu, Yixuan Liu, Min Li, Meng Tao, Liang Hu, Xiaoyan Wang, Yanjing Yang, Yang Xu, Wentao Liu
Background

Rosacea, a chronic inflammatory skin disorder etiologically associated with immune cells and the antibacterial peptide cathelicidin LL-37, can be effectively treated by oral carvedilol administration.

Objective

To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying carvedilol efficacy in rosacea treatment.

Methods

Skin samples of patients with rosacea were subjected to histopathological (hematoxylin and eosin) and immunohistochemical (CD68, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), kallikrein 5, cathelicidin, TNF-α, and IL-1β) evaluation. An in vivo murine rosacea-like inflammation model was established by LL-37 intradermal injection with or without carvedilol gavage-based pretreatment. Erythema proportion (Image J) and skin redness (L*a*b colorimetry) were quantified. Murine skin samples underwent pathological examination for inflammatory status and immunofluorescence staining. Murine skin and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells with or without carvedilol pretreatment were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Clinical facial images of patients were obtained using the VISIA skin analysis system before, 4, and 6 months following oral carvedilol administration.

Results

Rosacea skin lesions exhibited more pronounced inflammatory cell infiltration than peripheral areas, with profound macrophage infiltration and inflammatory cytokines (TLR2, kallikrein 5, cathelicidin, TNF-α, and IL-1β). In vivo, carvedilol alleviated inflammation in LL-37 mice, down-regulating TLR2, KLK5, and cathelicidin expression. In vitro, carvedilol decreased TLR2 expression in RAW 264.7 cells, further reducing KLK5 secretion and LL-37 expression and ultimately inhibiting rosacea-like inflammatory reactions. Clinical manifestations and facial redness obviously improved during 6-month follow-up with systemic carvedilol administration.

Conclusion

Carvedilol is effective against rosacea, with inhibition of macrophage TLR2 expression as a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism.

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