DataSheet5_Identification of GGT5 as a Novel Prognostic Biomarker for Gastric Cancer and its Correlation With Immune Cell Infiltration.PDF (104.34 kB)
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DataSheet5_Identification of GGT5 as a Novel Prognostic Biomarker for Gastric Cancer and its Correlation With Immune Cell Infiltration.PDF

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posted on 18.03.2022, 04:03 authored by Yuli Wang, Yuan Fang, Fanchen Zhao, Jiefei Gu, Xiang Lv, Rongzhong Xu, Bo Zhang, Zhihong Fang, Yan Li

Gastric cancer (GC) is a common malignant tumor of the digestive system. Recent studies revealed that high gamma-glutamyl-transferase 5 (GGT5) expression was associated with a poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients. In the present study, we aimed to confirm the expression and prognostic value of GGT5 and its correlation with immune cell infiltration in gastric cancer. First, we compared the differential expression of GGT5 between gastric cancer tissues and normal gastric mucosa in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and GEO NCBI databases using the most widely available data. Then, the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox regression, and univariate logistic regression were applied to explore the relationships between GGT5 and clinical characteristics. We also investigated the correlation of GGT5 with immune cell infiltration, immune-related genes, and immune checkpoint genes. Finally, we estimated enrichment of gene ontologies categories and relevant signaling pathways using GO annotations, KEGG, and GSEA pathway data. The results showed that GGT5 was upregulated in gastric cancer tissues compared to normal tissues. High GGT5 expression was significantly associated with T stage, histological type, and histologic grade (p < 0.05). Moreover, gastric cancer patients with high GGT5 expression showed worse 10-years overall survival (p = 0.008) and progression-free intervals (p = 0.006) than those with low GGT5 expression. Multivariate analysis suggested that high expression of GGT5 was an independent risk factor related to the worse overall survival of gastric cancer patients. A nomogram model for predicting the overall survival of GC was constructed and computationally validated. GGT5 expression was positively correlated with the infiltration of natural killer cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells but negatively correlated with Th17 infiltration. Additionally, we found that GGT5 was positively co-expressed with immune-related genes and immune checkpoint genes. Functional analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes relative to GGT5 were mainly involved in the biological processes of immune and inflammatory responses. In conclusion, GGT5 may serve as a promising prognostic biomarker and a potential immunological therapeutic target for GC, since it is associated with immune cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment.

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