DataSheet2_Multi-Omics Analysis of the Effects of Smoking on Human Tumors.XLSX
Comprehensive studies on cancer patients with different smoking histories, including non-smokers, former smokers, and current smokers, remain elusive. Therefore, we conducted a multi-omics analysis to explore the effect of smoking history on cancer patients. Patients with smoking history were screened from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, and their multi-omics data and clinical information were downloaded. A total of 2,317 patients were included in this study, whereby current smokers presented the worst prognosis, followed by former smokers, while non-smokers showed the best prognosis. More importantly, smoking history was an independent prognosis factor. Patients with different smoking histories exhibited different immune content, and former smokers had the highest immune cells and tumor immune microenvironment. Smokers are under a higher incidence of genomic instability that can be reversed following smoking cessation in some changes. We also noted that smoking reduced the sensitivity of patients to chemotherapeutic drugs, whereas smoking cessation can reverse the situation. Competing endogenous RNA network revealed that mir-193b-3p, mir-301b, mir-205-5p, mir-132-3p, mir-212-3p, mir-1271-5p, and mir-137 may contribute significantly in tobacco-mediated tumor formation. We identified 11 methylation driver genes (including EIF5A2, GBP6, HGD, HS6ST1, ITGA5, NR2F2, PLS1, PPP1R18, PTHLH, SLC6A15, and YEATS2), and methylation modifications of some of these genes have not been reported to be associated with tumors. We constructed a 46-gene model that predicted overall survival with good predictive power. We next drew nomograms of each cancer type. Interestingly, calibration diagrams and concordance indexes are verified that the nomograms were highly accurate for the prognosis of patients. Meanwhile, we found that the 46-gene model has good applicability to the overall survival as well as to disease-specific survival and progression-free intervals. The results of this research provide new and valuable insights for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of cancer patients with different smoking histories.