DataSheet1_The Unusual Cosubstrate Specificity of NQO2: Conservation Throughout the Amniotes and Implications for Cellular Function.PDF
Human Quinone Reductase 2 (NQO2) is a pharmacological target and has appeared in numerous screening efforts as an off-target interactor with kinase-targeted drugs. However the cellular functions of NQO2 are not known. To gain insight into the potential cellular functions of NQO2, we have carried out a detailed evolutionary analysis. One of the most striking characteristics of NQO2 is that it uses conventional dihydronicotinamide cosubstrates, NADH and NADPH, extremely inefficiently, raising questions about an enzymatic function in cells. To characterize the ability of NQO2 to serve as an enzyme, the NQO2 gene was disrupted in HCT116 cells. These NQO2 knockouts along with the parental cells were used to demonstrate that cellular NQO2 is unable to catalyze the activation of the DNA cross-linking reagent, CB1954, without the addition of exogenous dihydronicotinamide riboside (NRH). To find whether the unusual cosubstrate specificity of NQO2 has been conserved in the amniotes, recombinant NQO2 from a reptile, Alligator mississippiensis, and a bird, Anas platyrhynchos, were cloned, purified, and their catalytic activity characterized. Like the mammalian enzymes, the reptile and bird NQO2 were efficient catalysts with the small and synthetic cosubstrate N-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide but were inefficient in their use of NADH and NADPH. Therefore, the unusual cosubstrate preference of NQO2 appears to be conserved throughout the amniotes; however, we found that NQO2 is not well-conserved in the amphibians. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that NQO1 and NQO2 diverged at the time, approximately 450 MYA, when tetrapods were beginning to evolve.