DataSheet1_The Many Faces of G Protein-Coupled Receptor 143, an Atypical Intracellular Receptor.DOCX
GPCRs transform extracellular stimuli into a physiological response by activating an intracellular signaling cascade initiated via binding to G proteins. Orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) hold the potential to pave the way for development of new, innovative therapeutic strategies. In this review we will introduce G protein-coupled receptor 143 (GPR143), an enigmatic receptor in terms of classification within the GPCR superfamily and localization. GPR143 has not been assigned to any of the GPCR families due to the lack of common structural motifs. Hence we will describe the most important motifs of classes A and B and compare them to the protein sequence of GPR143. While a precise function for the receptor has yet to be determined, the protein is expressed abundantly in pigment producing cells. Many GPR143 mutations cause X-linked Ocular Albinism Type 1 (OA1, Nettleship-Falls OA), which results in hypopigmentation of the eyes and loss of visual acuity due to disrupted visual system development and function. In pigment cells of the skin, loss of functional GPR143 results in abnormally large melanosomes (organelles in which pigment is produced). Studies have shown that the receptor is localized internally, including at the melanosomal membrane, where it may function to regulate melanosome size and/or facilitate protein trafficking to the melanosome through the endolysosomal system. Numerous additional roles have been proposed for GPR143 in determining cancer predisposition, regulation of blood pressure, development of macular degeneration and signaling in the brain, which we will briefly describe as well as potential ligands that have been identified. Furthermore, GPR143 is a promiscuous receptor that has been shown to interact with multiple other melanosomal proteins and GPCRs, which strongly suggests that this orphan receptor is likely involved in many different physiological actions.