DataSheet1_Serum Metabolite Biomarkers Predictive of Response to PD-1 Blockade Therapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.PDF
Background: Despite remarkable success of immunotherapies with checkpoint blockade antibodies targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), the majority of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have yet to receive durable benefits. We used the metabolomic profiling of early on-treatment serum to explore predictors of clinical outcomes of anti-PD-1 treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC.
Methods: We recruited 74 Chinese patients who had stage IIIB/IV NSCLC-proven tumor progression and were treated with PD-1 inhibitor. The study was comprised of a discovery cohort of patients treated with nivolumab and two validation cohorts of patients receiving tislelizumab or nivolumab. Serum samples were collected 2–3 weeks after the first infusion of PD-1 inhibitor. Metabolomic profiling of serum was performed using ultrahigh performance lipid chromatograph-mass spectrometry. The serum metabolite biomarkers were identified using an integral workflow of nontargeted metabolomic data analysis.
Results: A serum metabolite panel consisting of hypoxanthine and histidine was identified and validated as a predictor of response to PD-1 blockade treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC. High levels of both hypoxanthine and histidine in early on-treatment serum were associated with improved progression-free survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.078, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.027–0.221, p < 0.001] and overall survival (HR = 0.124, 95% CI, 0.039–0.397, p < 0.001) in the discovery cohort. The serum metabolite panel showed a high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing responders and non-responders in the validation cohorts 1 and 2, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.933 and 1.000, respectively. High levels of serum hypoxanthine and histidine were correlated with improved progression-free survival in the validation cohort 1 (HR = 0.137, 95% CI, 0.040–0.467, p = 0.001) and in the validation cohort 2 (HR = 0.084, 95% CI, 0.009–0.762, p = 0.028).
Conclusion: Our results revealed that hypoxanthine and histidine in early on-treatment serum are predictive biomarkers of response to PD-1 blockade therapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. The serum biomarker panel would enable early identification of NSCLC patients who may benefit from PD-1 blockade therapy.