DataSheet1_Implementation of a biochemical, clinical, and genetic screening programme for familial hypercholesterolemia in 26 centres in Spain: The ARIAN study.DOCX
Background: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is clearly underdiagnosed and undertreated. The aim of this present study is to assess the benefits of FH screening through a joint national program implemented between clinical laboratories and lipid units.
Methods: All clinical laboratory tests from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2018 were reviewed, and those with LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels >250 mg/dl were identified in subjects >18 years of age of both sexes. Once secondary causes had been ruled out, the treating physician was contacted and advised to refer the patient to an LU to perform the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score and to request genetic testing if the score was ≥6 points. Next Generation Sequencing was used to analyse the promoter and coding DNA sequences of four genes associated with FH (LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, APOE) and two genes that have a clinical overlap with FH characteristics (LDLRAP1 and LIPA). A polygenic risk score based on 12 variants was also obtained.
Results: Of the 3,827,513 patients analyzed in 26 centers, 6,765 had LDL-C levels >250 mg/dl. Having ruled out secondary causes and known cases of FH, 3,015 subjects were included, although only 1,205 treating physicians could be contacted. 635 patients were referred to an LU and genetic testing was requested for 153 of them. This resulted in a finding of sixty-seven pathogenic variants for FH, 66 in the LDLR gene and one in APOB. The polygenic risk score was found higher in those who had no pathogenic variant compared to those with a pathogenic variant.
Conclusion: Despite its limitations, systematic collaboration between clinical laboratories and lipid units allows for the identification of large numbers of patients with a phenotypic or genetic diagnosis of FH, which will reduce their vascular risk. This activity should be part of the clinical routine.
- Gene and Molecular Therapy
- Gene Expression (incl. Microarray and other genome-wide approaches)
- Genetically Modified Animals
- Livestock Cloning
- Developmental Genetics (incl. Sex Determination)
- Epigenetics (incl. Genome Methylation and Epigenomics)
- Genome Structure and Regulation
- Genetic Engineering