DataSheet1_Coffee With a Hint of Data: Towards Using Data-Driven Approaches in Personalised Long-Term Interactions.pdf (204.81 kB)
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DataSheet1_Coffee With a Hint of Data: Towards Using Data-Driven Approaches in Personalised Long-Term Interactions.pdf

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posted on 28.09.2021, 04:03 authored by Bahar Irfan, Mehdi Hellou, Tony Belpaeme

While earlier research in human-robot interaction pre-dominantly uses rule-based architectures for natural language interaction, these approaches are not flexible enough for long-term interactions in the real world due to the large variation in user utterances. In contrast, data-driven approaches map the user input to the agent output directly, hence, provide more flexibility with these variations without requiring any set of rules. However, data-driven approaches are generally applied to single dialogue exchanges with a user and do not build up a memory over long-term conversation with different users, whereas long-term interactions require remembering users and their preferences incrementally and continuously and recalling previous interactions with users to adapt and personalise the interactions, known as the lifelong learning problem. In addition, it is desirable to learn user preferences from a few samples of interactions (i.e., few-shot learning). These are known to be challenging problems in machine learning, while they are trivial for rule-based approaches, creating a trade-off between flexibility and robustness. Correspondingly, in this work, we present the text-based Barista Datasets generated to evaluate the potential of data-driven approaches in generic and personalised long-term human-robot interactions with simulated real-world problems, such as recognition errors, incorrect recalls and changes to the user preferences. Based on these datasets, we explore the performance and the underlying inaccuracies of the state-of-the-art data-driven dialogue models that are strong baselines in other domains of personalisation in single interactions, namely Supervised Embeddings, Sequence-to-Sequence, End-to-End Memory Network, Key-Value Memory Network, and Generative Profile Memory Network. The experiments show that while data-driven approaches are suitable for generic task-oriented dialogue and real-time interactions, no model performs sufficiently well to be deployed in personalised long-term interactions in the real world, because of their inability to learn and use new identities, and their poor performance in recalling user-related data.