DataSheet1_A Polygenic Score for Type 2 Diabetes Improves Risk Stratification Beyond Current Clinical Screening Factors in an Ancestrally Diverse Samp.docx (979.52 kB)
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DataSheet1_A Polygenic Score for Type 2 Diabetes Improves Risk Stratification Beyond Current Clinical Screening Factors in an Ancestrally Diverse Sample.docx

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posted on 2022-04-26, 05:08 authored by James R. Ashenhurst, Olga V. Sazonova, Olivia Svrchek, Stacey Detweiler, Ryosuke Kita, Liz Babalola, Matthew McIntyre, Stella Aslibekyan, Pierre Fontanillas, Suyash Shringarpure, 23andMe Research Team, Jeffrey D. Pollard, Bertram L. Koelsch

A substantial proportion of the adult United States population with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are undiagnosed, calling into question the comprehensiveness of current screening practices, which primarily rely on age, family history, and body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that a polygenic score (PGS) may serve as a complementary tool to identify high-risk individuals. The T2D polygenic score maintained predictive utility after adjusting for family history and combining genetics with family history led to even more improved disease risk prediction. We observed that the PGS was meaningfully related to age of onset with implications for screening practices: there was a linear and statistically significant relationship between the PGS and T2D onset (−1.3 years per standard deviation of the PGS). Evaluation of U.S. Preventive Task Force and a simplified version of American Diabetes Association screening guidelines showed that addition of a screening criterion for those above the 90th percentile of the PGS provided a small increase the sensitivity of the screening algorithm. Among T2D-negative individuals, the T2D PGS was associated with prediabetes, where each standard deviation increase of the PGS was associated with a 23% increase in the odds of prediabetes diagnosis. Additionally, each standard deviation increase in the PGS corresponded to a 43% increase in the odds of incident T2D at one-year follow-up. Using complications and forms of clinical intervention (i.e., lifestyle modification, metformin treatment, or insulin treatment) as proxies for advanced illness we also found statistically significant associations between the T2D PGS and insulin treatment and diabetic neuropathy. Importantly, we were able to replicate many findings in a Hispanic/Latino cohort from our database, highlighting the value of the T2D PGS as a clinical tool for individuals with ancestry other than European. In this group, the T2D PGS provided additional disease risk information beyond that offered by traditional screening methodologies. The T2D PGS also had predictive value for the age of onset and for prediabetes among T2D-negative Hispanic/Latino participants. These findings strengthen the notion that a T2D PGS could play a role in the clinical setting across multiple ancestries, potentially improving T2D screening practices, risk stratification, and disease management.