Table_9_Population Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Characteristics for High-Altitude Adaptive Kham Tibetan Revealed by DNATyperTM 19 Amplification System.XLSX

Tibetans residing in the high-altitude inhospitable environment have undergone significant natural selection of their genetic architecture. Recently, highly mutational autosomal short tandem repeats were widely used not only in the anthropology and population genetics to investigate the genetic structure and relationships, but also in the medical genetics to explore the pathogenesis of multiple genetic diseases and in the forensic science to identify individual and parentage relatedness. However, genetic variants and forensic efficiency of DNATyperTM 19 amplification system and genetic background of Kham Tibetan remain uncharacterized. Thus, we genotyped 19 forensic genetic markers in 11,402 Kham Tibetans to gain insight into the genetic diversity of Chinese high-altitude adaptive population. Highly discriminating and polymorphic forensic measures were observed, which indicated that this new-developed DNATyper 19 PCR amplification is suitable for routine forensic identification purposes and Chinese national DNA database establishment. Pairwise genetic distances among the comprehensive population comparisons suggested that this high-altitude adaptive Kham Tibetan has genetically closer relationships with lowlanders of Tibeto-Burman-speaking populations (Chengdu Tibetan, Liangshan Tibetan, and Liangshan Yi). Genetic substructure analyses via phylogenetic reconstruction, principal component analysis, and multidimensional scaling analysis in both nationwide and worldwide contexts suggested that the genetic proximity exists along the linguistic, ethnic, and continental geographical boundary. Further studies with whole-genome sequencing of modern or archaic Kham Tibetans would be useful in reconstructing the Tibetan population history.