Table_5_Geographic Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Rice Stripe Mosaic Virus in Southern China.DOCX

Rice stripe mosaic virus (RSMV) transmitted by the leafhopper Recilia dorsalis is a tentative new species in the genus Cytorhabdovirus identified recently in South China. To explore its geographic distribution and genetic diversity, field investigation and viral whole-genome sequencing were conducted in this study. The results indicated that RSMV was present in the rice samples collected across southern China. Twelve representative samples from different geographical regions were selected for viral whole-genome sequencing and the viral genome variation was analyzed in combination with a previously reported RSMV isolate. Identity analysis showed that the genome sequences of 13 RSMV isolates were highly conserved with nucleotide identities over 99.4%. There was a strong negative selection pressure during the evolution of RSMV with more transitions (72.08%) than transversions (27.92%) found between the RSMV isolates. Among the seven genes encoded by RSMV, the P gene was the most variable, followed by N, M, L, and G; the P3 and P6 amino acid sequences were not found to be mutated and no mutations were found in the non-coding region. A phylogenetic tree based on the RSMV whole-genome nucleotide sequences revealed that all RSMV isolates clustered in two groups based on geographical origin. Notably, the L proteins of the Guangxi and Hainan isolates had five and one specific amino acid sites, respectively, suggesting that the L gene has undergone environmental adaptive variation during the dispersal of RSMV.