Table_5_Characterization of Duck (Anas platyrhynchos) Short Tandem Repeat Variation by Population-Scale Genome Resequencing.XLSX

Short tandem repeats (STRs) are usually associated with genetic diseases and gene regulatory functions, and are also important genetic markers for analysis of evolutionary, genetic diversity and forensic. However, for the majority of STRs in the duck genome, their population genetic properties and functional impacts remain poorly defined. Recent advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) has offered an opportunity for profiling large numbers of polymorphic STRs. Here, we reported a population-scale analysis of STR variation using genome resequencing in mallard and Pekin duck. Our analysis provided the first genome-wide duck STR reference including 198,022 STR loci with motif size of 2–6 base pairs. We observed a relatively uneven distribution of STRs in different genomic regions, which indicates that the occurrence of STRs in duck genome is not random, but undergoes a directional selection pressure. Using genome resequencing data of 23 mallard and 26 Pekin ducks, we successfully identified 89,891 polymorphic STR loci. Intensive analysis of this dataset suggested that shorter repeat motif, longer reference tract length, higher purity, and residing outside of a coding region are all associated with an increase in STR variability. STR genotypes were utilized for population genetic analysis, and the results showed that population structure and divergence patterns among population groups can be efficiently captured. In addition, comparison between Pekin duck and mallard identified 3,122 STRs with extremely divergent allele frequency, which overlapped with a set of genes related to nervous system, energy metabolism and behavior. The evolutionary analysis revealed that the genes containing divergent STRs may play important roles in phenotypic changes during duck domestication. The variation analysis of STRs in population scale provides valuable resource for future study of genetic diversity and genome evolution in duck.