Table_4_Increased Catalase Activity and Maintenance of Photosystem II Distinguishes High-Yield Mutants From Low-Yield Mutants of Rice var. Nagina22 Under Low-Phosphorus Stress.DOC

An upland rice variety, Nagina22 (N22) and its 137 ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutants, along with a sensitive variety, Jaya, was screened both in low phosphorus (P) field (Olsen P 1.8) and in normal field (Olsen P 24) during dry season. Based on the grain yield (YLD) of plants in normal field and plants in low P field, 27 gain of function (high-YLD represented as hy) and 9 loss of function (low-YLD represented as ly) mutants were selected and compared with N22 for physiological and genotyping studies. In low P field, hy mutants showed higher P concentration in roots, leaves, grains, and in the whole plant than in ly mutants at harvest. In low P conditions, Fv/Fm and qN were 24% higher in hy mutants than in ly mutants. In comparison with ly mutants, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the roots and leaves of hy mutants in low P fields was 9% and 41% higher at the vegetative stage, respectively, but 51% and 14% lower in the roots and leaves at the reproductive stage, respectively. However, in comparison with ly mutants, the catalase (CAT) activity in the roots and leaves of hy mutants in low P fields was 35% higher at the vegetative stage and 15% and 17% higher at the reproductive stage, respectively. Similarly, hy mutants in low P field showed 20% and 80% higher peroxidase (POD) activity in the roots and leaves at the vegetative stage, respectively, but showed 14% and 16% lower POD activity at the reproductive stage in the roots and leaves, respectively. Marker trait association analysis using 48 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 10 Pup1 gene markers showed that RM3648 and RM451 in chromosome 4 were significantly associated with grain YLD, tiller number (TN), SOD, and POD activities in both the roots and leaves in low P conditions only. Similarly, RM3334 and RM6300 in chromosome 5 were associated with CAT activity in leaves in low P conditions. Notably, grain YLD was positively and significantly correlated with CAT activity in the roots and shoots, Fv/Fm and qN in low P conditions, and the shoots’ P concentration and qN in normal conditions. Furthermore, CAT activity in shoots was positively and significantly correlated with TN in both low P and normal conditions. Thus, chromosomal regions and physiological traits that have a role in imparting tolerance to low P in the field were identified.