Table_2_Microbiota of the Gut-Lymph Node Axis: Depletion of Mucosa-Associated Segmented Filamentous Bacteria and Enrichment of Methanobrevibacter by Colistin Sulfate and Linco-Spectin in Pigs.XLSX

<p>Microorganisms are translocated from the gut to lymphatic tissues via immune cells, thereby challenging and training the mammalian immune system. Antibiotics alter the gut microbiome and consecutively might also affect the corresponding translocation processes, resulting in an imbalanced state between the intestinal microbiota and the host. Hence, understanding the variant effects of antibiotics on the microbiome of gut-associated tissues is of vital importance for maintaining metabolic homeostasis and animal health. In the present study, we analyzed the microbiome of (i) pig feces, ileum, and ileocecal lymph nodes under the influence of antibiotics (Linco-Spectin and Colistin sulfate) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing for high-resolution community profiling and (ii) ileocecal lymph nodes in more detail with two additional methodological approaches, i.e., cultivation of ileocecal lymph node samples and (iii) metatranscriptome sequencing of a single lymph node sample. Supplementation of medicated feed showed a local effect on feces and ileal mucosa-associated microbiomes. Pigs that received antibiotics harbored significantly reduced amounts of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) along the ileal mucosa (p = 0.048; 199.17-fold change) and increased amounts of Methanobrevibacter, a methanogenic Euryarchaeote in fecal samples (p = 0.005; 20.17-fold change) compared to the control group. Analysis of the porcine ileocecal lymph node microbiome exposed large differences between the viable and the dead fraction of microorganisms and the microbiome was altered to a lesser extent by antibiotics compared with feces and ileum. The core microbiome of lymph nodes was constituted mainly of Proteobacteria. RNA-sequencing of a single lymph node sample unveiled transcripts responsible for amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as protein turnover, DNA replication and signal transduction. The study presented here is the first comparative study of microbial communities in feces, ileum, and its associated ileocecal lymph nodes. In each analyzed site, we identified specific phylotypes susceptible to antibiotic treatment that can have profound impacts on the host physiological and immunological state, or even on global biogeochemical cycles. Our results indicate that pathogenic bacteria, e.g., enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, could escape antibiotic treatment by translocating to lymph nodes. In general ileocecal lymph nodes harbor a more diverse and active community of microorganisms than previously assumed.</p>