Table_2_Lanthanide-Dependent Methanol Dehydrogenases of XoxF4 and XoxF5 Clades Are Differentially Distributed Among Methylotrophic Bacteria and They Reveal Different Biochemical Properties.XLSX

Lanthanide-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases have recently emerged as environmentally important enzymes, most prominently represented in methylotrophic bacteria. The diversity of these enzymes, their environmental distribution, and their biochemistry, as well as their evolutionary relationships with their calcium-dependent counterparts remain virtually untapped. Here, we make important advances toward understanding lanthanide-dependent methylotrophy by assessing the distribution of XoxF4 and XoxF5 clades of lanthanide methanol dehydrogenases among, respectively, Methylophilaceae and non-Methylophilaceae methylotrophs, and we carry out comparative biochemical characterization of XoxF4 and XoxF5 enzymes, demonstrating differences in their properties, including catalytic efficiencies. We conclude that one subtype of the XoxF4 enzyme, XoxF4-1 is the dominant type in nature while other XoxF4 subtypes appear to be auxiliary, representatives of this clade only found in the Methylophilaceae (Betaproteobacteria). In contrast, we demonstrate that XoxF5 enzymes are widespread among Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. We purified and biochemically characterized two XoxF4 enzymes (XoxF4-1 and XoxF4-2), both from Methylotenera mobilis, and one XoxF5 enzyme, from Methylomonas sp., after expressing their His-tagged versions in respective natural hosts. All three enzymes showed broad specificities toward alcohols and aldehydes and strict dependence on lighter lanthanides. However, they revealed differences in their properties in terms of optimal pH for in vitro activity, ammonia dependence, the range of lanthanides that could serve as cofactors, and in kinetic properties. Overall, our data advance the understanding of the biochemistry and environmental distribution of these recently discovered enzymes that appear to be key enzymes in lanthanide-dependent methylotrophy.