Table_2_Attenuated Oral Typhoid Vaccine Ty21a Elicits Lamina Propria and Intra-Epithelial Lymphocyte Tissue-Resident Effector Memory CD8 T Responses in the Human Terminal Ileum.pdf

<p>Tissue-resident memory T cells (T<sub>RM</sub>) are newly defined memory T cells (T<sub>M</sub>) distinct from circulating T<sub>M</sub> subsets which have the potential to mount rapid protective immune responses at the site of infection. However, very limited information is available regarding the role and contribution of T<sub>RM</sub> in vaccine-mediated immune responses in humans at the site of infection. Here, we studied the role and contribution of tissue resident memory T cells (T<sub>RM</sub>) located in the terminal ileum (TI) (favored site of infection for S. Typhi) following oral Ty21a immunization in humans. We examined TI-lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) and intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IEL) CD8+ T<sub>RM</sub> subsets obtained from healthy volunteers undergoing medically-indicated colonoscopies who were either immunized with Ty21a or unvaccinated. No significant differences in the frequencies of LPMC CD8+ T<sub>RM</sub> and CD8+CD69+CD103– T cells subsets were observed following Ty21a-immunization. However, LPMC CD8+ T<sub>RM</sub> exhibited significantly higher levels of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17A, and TNF-α) ex-vivo in Ty21a-vaccinated than in unvaccinated volunteers. LPMC CD8+ T<sub>RM</sub>S. Typhi-specific responses were evaluated using S. Typhi-infected targets and found to produce significantly higher levels of S. Typhi-specific IL-17A. In contrast, LPMC CD8+CD69+CD103- T cells produced significantly increased S. Typhi-specific levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-17A. Finally, we assessed CD8+ T<sub>RM</sub> in IEL and observed that the frequency of IEL CD8+ T<sub>RM</sub> is significantly lower following Ty21a immunization. However, ex-vivo IEL CD8+ T<sub>RM</sub> elicited by Ty21a immunization spontaneously produced significantly higher levels of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-2, and TNF-α). This study provides the first demonstration of the effect of oral Ty21a vaccination on CD8+ T<sub>RM</sub> subsets (spontaneous and S. Typhi-specific) responses in the LPMC and IEL compartment of the human terminal ileum mucosa, contributing novel information to our understanding of the generation of mucosal immune responses following oral Ty21a-immunization.</p>