Table_1_Varimax Rotation Based on Gradient Projection Is a Feasible Alternative to SPSS.xlsx

2019-03-26T04:46:41Z (GMT) by Anneke Cleopatra Weide André Beauducel

Gradient projection rotation (GPR) is an openly available and promising tool for factor and component rotation. We compare GPR toward the Varimax criterion in principal component analysis to the built-in Varimax procedure in SPSS. In a simulation study, we tested whether GPR-Varimax yielded multiple local solutions by creating population simple structure with a single optimum and with two optima, a global and a local one (double-optimum condition). The other conditions comprised the number of components (k = 3, 6, 9, and 12), the number of variables per component (m/k = 4, 6, and 8), the number of iterations per rotation (i = 25 and 250), and whether loadings were Kaiser normalized before rotation or not. GPR-Varimax was conducted with unrotated and multiple (q = 1, 10, 50, and 100) random start loadings. We found equal results for GPR-Varimax and SPSS-Varimax in most conditions. The few very small differences in favor of SPSS-Varimax were eliminated when Kaiser-normalized loadings and 250 iterations per rotation were used. Selecting the best solution out of multiple random starts in GPR-Varimax increased proximity to population components in the double-optimum condition with Kaiser normalized loadings, for which GPR-Varimax recovered population structure better than SPSS-Varimax. We also included an empirical example and found that GPR-Varimax and SPSS-Varimax yielded highly similar solutions for orthogonal simple structure in a real data set. We suggest that GPR-Varimax can be used as an alternative to Varimax rotation in SPSS. Users of GPR-Varimax should allow for at least 250 iterations, normalize loadings before rotation, and select the best solution from at least 10 random starts to ensure optimal results.