Table_1_Rapid Identification of Major QTLS Associated With Near- Freezing Temperature Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.DOCX

Temperatures had a strong effect on many life history traits, including growth, development and reproduction. At near-freezing temperatures (0–4°C), yeast cells could trigger series of biochemical reactions to respond and adapt to the stress, protect them against sever cold and freeze injury. Different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains vary greatly in their ability to grow at near-freezing temperatures. However, the molecular mechanisms that allow yeast cells to sustain this response are not yet fully understood and the genetic basis of tolerance and sensitivity to near-freeze stress remains unclear. Uncovering the genetic determinants of this trait is, therefore, of is of significant interest. In order to investigate the genetic basis that underlies near-freezing temperature tolerance in S. cerevisiae, we mapped the major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) using bulk segregant analysis (BSA) in the F2 segregant population of two Chinese indigenous S. cerevisiae strains with divergent tolerance capability at 4°C. By genome-wide comparison of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiles between two bulks of segregants with high and low tolerance to near-freezing temperature, a hot region located on chromosome IV was identified tightly associated with the near-freezing temperature tolerance. The Reciprocal hemizygosity analysis (RHA) and gene deletion was used to validate the genes involved in the trait, showed that the gene NAT1 plays a role in the near-freezing temperature tolerance. This study improved our understanding of the genetic basis of the variability of near-freezing temperature tolerance in yeasts. The superior allele identified could be used to genetically improve the near-freezing stress adaptation of industrial yeast strains.