Table_1_Plasma-Derived Inflammatory Proteins Predict Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.DOCX

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major concern with high morbidity and mortality worldwide, even with the current knowledge and the advancement in treatment. OSCCs diagnosed at late-stage often require wide-excision with or without neck dissection, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy. When deemed successful, treatment often results in diminished quality of life, impaired function, and disfigurement. Strategies for early detection are urgently needed for patients afflicted with this disease. Inflammatory protein plasma biomarkers have shown to be potential tests for early detection and disease monitoring in several cancers. There has been no study on inflammation-related plasma biomarkers in OSCC. The objectives of the study were to use a multiplex approach to screen plasma-derived biomarkers and to examine the association of measurable proteins with OSCC. A total of 260 plasma samples (210 OSCC and 50 normal controls) were collected to measure for concentration of inflammatory related biomarkers using electrochemiluminescence multiplex assay. After screening of 82 potential biomarkers of the first 160 OSCC, 16 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were identified and verified in the second set of samples containing 50 OSCC and 50 normal. After adjustment of age and batch effects, the adjusted differential expression analysis showed that the OSCCs were markedly lower in 14 biomarkers and significantly higher level of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra). By performing unsupervised clustering analysis, we observed distinctive groups of normal and two subgroups of OSCC. Linear regression of IL2, IL1Ra, and macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF) showed high accuracy in classifying OSCC with sensitivity of 0.96 and specificity of 0.92. In conclusion, this is the first paper to identify potential inflammatory plasma protein biomarkers of patients with OSCC. With further validation, the set of biomarkers can potentially be used to assist in early detection of OSCC when the disease is localized and in more treatable stage.