Table_1_Metabolome Integrated Analysis of High-Temperature Response in Pinus radiata.XLSX

The integrative omics approach is crucial to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying high-temperature response in non-model species. Based on future scenarios of heat increase, Pinus radiata plants were exposed to a temperature of 40°C for a period of 5 days, including recovered plants (30 days after last exposure to 40°C) in the analysis. The analysis of the metabolome using complementary mass spectrometry techniques (GC-MS and LC-Orbitrap-MS) allowed the reliable quantification of 2,287 metabolites. The analysis of identified metabolites and highlighter metabolic pathways across heat time exposure reveal the dynamism of the metabolome in relation to high-temperature response in P. radiata, identifying the existence of a turning point (on day 3) at which P. radiata plants changed from an initial stress response program (shorter-term response) to an acclimation one (longer-term response). Furthermore, the integration of metabolome and physiological measurements, which cover from the photosynthetic state to hormonal profile, suggests a complex metabolic pathway interaction network related to heat-stress response. Cytokinins (CKs), fatty acid metabolism and flavonoid and terpenoid biosynthesis were revealed as the most important pathways involved in heat-stress response in P. radiata, with zeatin riboside (ZR) and isopentenyl adenosine (iPA) as the key hormones coordinating these multiple and complex interactions. On the other hand, the integrative approach allowed elucidation of crucial metabolic mechanisms involved in heat response in P. radiata, as well as the identification of thermotolerance metabolic biomarkers (L-phenylalanine, hexadecanoic acid, and dihydromyricetin), crucial metabolites which can reschedule the metabolic strategy to adapt to high temperature.