Table_1_Leukocyte-Derived Interleukin-10 Aggravates Postoperative Ileus.docx

<p>Objective: Postoperative ileus (POI) is an inflammation-mediated complication of abdominal surgery, characterized by intestinal dysmotility and leukocyte infiltration into the muscularis externa (ME). Previous studies indicated that interleukin (IL)-10 is crucial for the resolution of a variety of inflammation-driven diseases. Herein, we investigated how IL-10 affects the postoperative ME inflammation and found an unforeseen role of IL-10 in POI.</p><p>Design: POI was induced by a standardized intestinal manipulation (IM) in C57BL/6 and multiple transgenic mouse strain including C-C motif chemokine receptor 2<sup>−/−</sup>, IL-10<sup>−/−</sup>, and LysM<sup>cre</sup>/IL-10<sup>fl/fl</sup> mice. Leukocyte infiltration, gene and protein expression of cytokines, chemokines, and macrophage differentiation markers as well as intestinal motility were analyzed. IL-10 serum levels in surgical patients were determined by ELISA.</p><p>Results: IL-10 serum levels were increased in patient after abdominal surgery. In mice, a complete or leucocyte-restricted IL-10 deficiency ameliorated POI and reduced the postoperative ME neutrophil infiltration. Infiltrating monocytes were identified as main IL-10 producers and undergo IL-10-dependent M2 polarization. Interestingly, M2 polarization is not crucial to POI development as abrogation of monocyte infiltration did not prevent POI due to a compensation of the IL-10 loss by resident macrophages and neutrophils. Organ culture studies demonstrated that IL-10 deficiency impeded neutrophil migration toward the surgically traumatized ME. This mechanism is mediated by reduction of neutrophil attracting chemokines.</p><p>Conclusion: Monocyte-derived macrophages are the major IL-10 source during POI. An IL-10 deficiency decreases the postoperative expression of neutrophil-recruiting chemokines, consequently reduces the neutrophil extravasation into the postsurgical bowel wall, and finally protects mice from POI.</p>