Table_1_Influences of Canopy Nitrogen and Water Addition on AM Fungal Biodiversity and Community Composition in a Mixed Deciduous Forest of China.docx

<p>Nitrogen (N) deposition and precipitation could profoundly influence the structure and function of forest ecosystems. However, conventional studies with understory additions of nitrogen and water largely ignored canopy-associated ecological processes and may have not accurately reflected the natural situations. Additionally, most studies only made sampling at one time point, overlooked temporal dynamics of ecosystem response to environmental changes. Here we carried out a field trial in a mixed deciduous forest of China with canopy addition of N and water for 4 years to investigate the effects of increased N deposition and precipitation on the diversity and community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, the ubiquitous symbiotic fungi for the majority of terrestrial plants. We found that (1) in the 1st year, N addition, water addition and their interactions all exhibited significant influences on AM fungal community composition; (2) in the 2nd year, only water addition significantly reduced AM fungal alpha-diversity (richness and Shannon index); (3) in the next 2 years, both N addition and water addition showed no significant effect on AM fungal community composition or alpha-diversity, with an exception that water addition significantly changed AM fungal community composition in the 4th year; (4) the increment of N or water tended to decrease the abundance and richness of the dominant genus Glomus and favored other AM fungi. (5) soil pH was marginally positively related with AM fungal community composition dissimilarity, soil NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>-N and N/P showed significant/marginal positive correlation with AM fungal alpha-diversity. We concluded that the effect of increased N deposition and precipitation on AM fungal community composition was time-dependent, mediated by soil factors, and possibly related to the sensitivity and resilience of forest ecosystem to environmental changes.</p>