Table_1_In vitro and in silico Models to Study Mosquito-Borne Flavivirus Neuropathogenesis, Prevention, and Treatment.DOCX

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses can cause disease in the nervous system, resulting in a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. Disease models are necessary to understand neuropathogenesis and identify potential therapeutics and vaccines. Non-human primates have been used extensively but present major challenges. Advances have also been made toward the development of humanized mouse models, but these models still do not fully represent human pathophysiology. Recent developments in stem cell technology and cell culture techniques have allowed the development of more physiologically relevant human cell-based models. In silico modeling has also allowed researchers to identify and predict transmission patterns and discover potential vaccine and therapeutic candidates. This review summarizes the research on in vitro and in silico models used to study three mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause neurological disease in humans: West Nile, Dengue, and Zika. We also propose a roadmap for 21st century research on mosquito-borne flavivirus neuropathogenesis, prevention, and treatment.