Table_1_Expression and Characteristics of Two Glucose-Tolerant GH1 β-glucosidases From Actinomadura amylolytica YIM 77502T for Promoting Cellulose Degradation.DOC

The bioconversion of lignocellulose in various industrial processes, such as biofuel production, requires the degradation of cellulose. Actinomadura amylolytica YIM 77502T is an aerobic, Gram-positive actinomycete that can efficiently degrade crystalline cellulose by extracellular cellulases. Genomic analysis of A. amylolytica identified 9 cellulase and 11 β-glucosidase genes that could potentially encode proteins that digest cellulose. Extracellular proteome characterization of A. amylolytica cell-free culture supernatant by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that 4 of these cellulases and 2 of these β-glucosidases functioned during cellulose hydrolysis. Thin-layer chromatography analysis revealed extracellular β-glucosidases play a major role in carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) degradation of products in culture supernatants. In this study, 2 of the identified secreted β-glucosidases, AaBGL1 and AaBGL2, were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and found to have β-glucosidase activity with wide substrate specificities, including for p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG), p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-cellobioside (pNPC), and cellobiose. Moreover, AaBGL1 and AaBGL2 had high tolerances for glucose. After adding these β-glucosidases to commercial cellulases, the degradation rates of CMC, Avicel, birch sawdust, and corncob powder increased by 37, 42, 33, and 9%, respectively. Overall, this work identifies an alternative potential source of β-glucosidases with potential applications in commercial cellulose utilization and the bioenergy industry.