Table_1_Comparing Effects of Transforming Growth Factor β1 on Microglia From Rat and Mouse: Transcriptional Profiles and Potassium Channels.PDF

The cytokine, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), is up-regulated after central nervous system (CNS) injuries or diseases involving microglial activation, and it has been proposed as a therapeutic agent for treating neuroinflammation. Microglia can produce and respond to TGFβ1. While rats and mice are commonly used for studying neuroinflammation, very few reports directly compare them. Such studies are important for improving pre-clinical studies and furthering translational progress in developing therapeutic interventions. After intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the rat striatum, the TGFβ1 receptor was highly expressed on microglia/macrophages within the hematoma. We recently found species similarities and differences in response to either a pro-inflammatory (interferon-γ, IFN-γ, +tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α) or anti-inflammatory interleukin-4 (IL-4) stimulus. Here, we assessed whether rat and mouse microglia differ in their responses to TGFβ1. Microglia were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice and treated with TGFβ1. We quantified changes in expression of >50 genes, in their morphology, proliferation, apoptosis and in three potassium channels that are considered therapeutic targets. Many inflammatory mediators, immune receptors and modulators showed species similarities, but notable differences included that, for some genes, only one species responded (e.g., Il4r, Il10, Tgfbr2, colony-stimulating factor receptor (Csf1r), Itgam, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (Socs1), toll-like receptors 4 (Tlr4), P2rx7, P2ry12), and opposite responses were seen for others (Tgfb1, Myc, Ifngr1). In rat only, TGFβ1 affected microglial morphology and proliferation, but there was no apoptosis in either species. In both species, TGFβ1 dramatically increased Kv1.3 channel expression and current (no effects on Kir2.1). KCa3.1 showed opposite species responses: the current was low in unstimulated rat microglia and greatly increased by TGFβ1 but higher in control mouse cells and decreased by TGFβ1. Finally, we compared TGFβ1 and IL10 (often considered similar anti-inflammatory stimuli) and found many different responses in both species. Overall, the numerous species differences should be considered when characterizing neuroinflammation and microglial activation in vitro and in vivo, and when targeting potassium channels.