Presentation_1_Citrate as Cost-Efficient NADPH Regenerating Agent.pdf

The economically efficient utilization of NAD(P)H-dependent enzymes requires the regeneration of consumed reduction equivalents. Classically, this is done by substrate supplementation, and if necessary by addition of one or more enzymes. The simplest method thereof is whole cell NADPH regeneration. In this context we now present an easy-to-apply whole cell cofactor regeneration approach, which can especially be used in screening applications. Simply by applying citrate to a buffer or directly using citrate/-phosphate buffer NADPH can be regenerated by native enzymes of the TCA cycle, practically present in all aerobic living organisms. Apart from viable-culturable cells, this regeneration approach can also be applied with lyophilized cells and even crude cell extracts. This is exemplarily shown for the synthesis of 1-phenylethanol from acetophenone with several oxidoreductases. The mechanism of NADPH regeneration by TCA cycle enzymes was further investigated by a transient isotopic labeling experiment feeding [1,5-13C]citrate. This revealed that the regeneration mechanism can further be optimized by genetic modification of two competing internal citrate metabolism pathways, the glyoxylate shunt, and the glutamate dehydrogenase.