Image_7_Comparative Hippocampal Synaptic Proteomes of Rodents and Primates: Differences in Neuroplasticity-Related Proteins.TIFF

Key to the human brain’s unique capacities are a myriad of neural cell types, specialized molecular expression signatures, and complex patterns of neuronal connectivity. Neurons in the human brain communicate via well over a quadrillion synapses. Their specific contribution might be key to the dynamic activity patterns that underlie primate-specific cognitive function. Recently, functional differences were described in transmission capabilities of human and rat synapses. To test whether unique expression signatures of synaptic proteins are at the basis of this, we performed a quantitative analysis of the hippocampal synaptic proteome of four mammalian species, two primates, human and marmoset, and two rodents, rat and mouse. Abundance differences down to 1.15-fold at an FDR-corrected p-value of 0.005 were reliably detected using SWATH mass spectrometry. The high measurement accuracy of SWATH allowed the detection of a large group of differentially expressed proteins between individual species and rodent vs. primate. Differentially expressed proteins between rodent and primate were found highly enriched for plasticity-related proteins.