Image_2_Continuous in vivo Metabolism by NMR.pdf
Dense time-series metabolomics data are essential for unraveling the underlying dynamic properties of metabolism. Here we extend high-resolution-magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) to enable continuous in vivo monitoring of metabolism by NMR (CIVM-NMR) and provide analysis tools for these data. First, we reproduced a result in human chronic lymphoid leukemia cells by using isotope-edited CIVM-NMR to rapidly and unambiguously demonstrate unidirectional flux in branched-chain amino acid metabolism. We then collected untargeted CIVM-NMR datasets for Neurospora crassa, a classic multicellular model organism, and uncovered dynamics between central carbon metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy storage molecules, and lipid and cell wall precursors. Virtually no sample preparation was required to yield a dynamic metabolic fingerprint over hours to days at ~4-min temporal resolution with little noise. CIVM-NMR is simple and readily adapted to different types of cells and microorganisms, offering an experimental complement to kinetic models of metabolism for diverse biological systems.