Image_2_Acetylcholine Inhibits Monomeric C-Reactive Protein Induced Inflammation, Endothelial Cell Adhesion, and Platelet Aggregation; A Potential Therapeutic?.TIF

Objectives: In this study, we examined the possibility of using targeted antibodies and the potential of small molecular therapeutics (acetylcholine, nicotine and tacrine) to block the pro-inflammatory and adhesion-related properties of monomeric C-reactive protein (mCRP).

Methods: We used three established models (platelet aggregation assay, endothelial leucocyte binding assay and monocyte inflammation via ELISA and Western blotting) to assess the potential of these therapeutics.

Results: The results of this study showed that monocyte induced inflammation (raised tumor necrosis factor-alpha-TNF-α) induced by mCRP was significantly blocked in the presence of acetylcholine and nicotine, whilst tacrine and targeted antibodies (clones 8C10 and 3H12) had less of or no significant effects. Western blotting confirmed the ability of acetylcholine to inhibit mCRP-induced cell signaling phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). There was no evidence of direct binding between small molecules and mCRP. mCRP also induced endothelial cell-monocyte adhesion in a dose dependent fashion, however, both acetylcholine and nicotine as well as targeting antibodies notably inhibited adhesion. Finally, we investigated their effects on mCRP-induced platelet aggregation. All three small molecules significantly attenuated platelet aggregation as did the antibody 8C10, although 3H12 had a weaker effect.

Discussion: Acetylcholine and to a lesser extent nicotine show potential for therapeutic inhibition of mCRP-induced inflammation and cell and platelet adhesion. These results highlight the potential of targeted antibodies and small molecule therapeutics to inhibit the binding of mCRP by prevention of membrane interaction and subsequent activation of cellular cascade systems, which produce the pro-inflammatory effects associated with mCRP.