Image_1_Metagenomic Analysis of Bacteria, Fungi, Bacteriophages, and Helminths in the Gut of Giant Pandas.PDF

To obtain full details of gut microbiota, including bacteria, fungi, bacteriophages, and helminths, in giant pandas (GPs), we created a comprehensive microbial genome database and used metagenomic sequences to align against the database. We delineated a detailed and different gut microbiota structures of GPs. A total of 680 species of bacteria, 198 fungi, 185 bacteriophages, and 45 helminths were found. Compared with 16S rRNA sequencing, the dominant bacterium phyla not only included Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria but also Cyanobacteria and other eight phyla. Aside from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Glomeromycota, Mucoromycota, and Microsporidia were the dominant fungi phyla. The bacteriophages were predominantly dsDNA Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, ssDNA Inoviridae, and Microviridae. For helminths, phylum Nematoda was the dominant. In addition to previously described parasites, another 44 species of helminths were found in GPs. Also, differences in abundance of microbiota were found between the captive, semiwild, and wild GPs. A total of 1,739 genes encoding cellulase, β-glucosidase, and cellulose β-1,4-cellobiosidase were responsible for the metabolism of cellulose, and 128,707 putative glycoside hydrolase genes were found in bacteria/fungi. Taken together, the results indicated not only bacteria but also fungi, bacteriophages, and helminths were diverse in gut of giant pandas, which provided basis for the further identification of role of gut microbiota. Besides, metagenomics revealed that the bacteria/fungi in gut of GPs harbor the ability of cellulose and hemicellulose degradation.