Image_1_Comparison of Aerobic Scope for Metabolic Activity in Aquatic Ectotherms With Temperature Related Metabolic Stimulation: A Novel Approach for Aerobic Power Budget.TIF

Considering that swim-flume or chasing methods fail in the estimation of maximum metabolic rate and in the estimation of Aerobic Scope (AS) of sedentary or sluggish aquatic ectotherms, we propose a novel conceptual approach in which high metabolic rates can be obtained through stimulation of organism metabolic activity using high and low non-lethal temperatures that induce high (HMR) and low metabolic rates (LMR), This method was defined as TIMR: Temperature Induced Metabolic Rate, designed to obtain an aerobic power budget based on temperature-induced metabolic scope which may mirror thermal metabolic scope (TMS = HMR—LMR). Prior to use, the researcher should know the critical thermal maximum (CT max) and minimum (CT min) of animals, and calculate temperature TIMR max (at temperatures −5–10% below CT max) and TIMR min (at temperatures +5–10% above CT min), or choose a high and low non-lethal temperature that provoke a higher and lower metabolic rate than observed in routine conditions. Two sets of experiments were carried out. The first compared swim-flume open respirometry and the TIMR protocol using Centropomus undecimalis (snook), an endurance swimmer, acclimated at different temperatures. Results showed that independent of the method used and of the magnitude of the metabolic response, a similar relationship between maximum metabolic budget and acclimation temperature was observed, demonstrating that the TIMR method allows the identification of TMS. The second evaluated the effect of acclimation temperature in snook, semi-sedentary yellow tail (Ocyurus chrysurus), and sedentary clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris), using TIMR and the chasing method. Both methods produced similar maximum metabolic rates in snook and yellowtail fish, but strong differences became visible in clownfish. In clownfish, the TIMR method led to a significantly higher TMS than the chasing method indicating that chasing may not fully exploit the aerobic power budget in sedentary species. Thus, the TIMR method provides an alternative way to estimate the difference between high and low metabolic activity under different acclimation conditions that, although not equivalent to AS may allow the standardized estimation of TMS that is relevant for sedentary species where measurement of AS via maximal swimming is inappropriate.